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Glaucoma | Diseases | VisArt

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Glaucoma

Diseases

Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease that causes characteristic changes in the disc of the optic nerve (papilla) and the retina. They are a loss of nerve cells leading to atrophy and excision of the optic nerve, which are accompanied by a progressive restriction of peripheral vision and a decrease in visual function to blindness. Glaucoma is the second cause of blindness after cataracts, but blindness caused by cataracts is operably treatable, so glaucoma remains the first cause of irreversible blindness.

The risk factors for the occurrence of glaucoma are numerous. The most important of these is elevated intraocular pressure. Normal intraocular pressure is between 10 and 21 mmHg. The risk of glaucoma is increased in proportion to elevated intraocular pressure. The wide 24-hour intraocular pressure amplitude also contributes to the development of the disease. This pressure and the tolerance of the optic nerve to it is strictly individual, and eye pressure does not need to be identified with glaucoma. The fact that people with normal intraocular pressure can develop glaucoma shows that it is not the only risk factor. Such factors are also: hypertension, low blood with insufficient blood supply to the brain, age over 45 years, genetic factors, myopia, etc.

There are millions of people in the world suffering from glaucoma. In most cases, the process occurs slowly and imperceptibly, without pain or special symptoms. As the state progresses, significant defects appear in the field of vision. Remaining without treatment and control, the disease can lead to complete blindness. That is why glaucoma is particularly dangerous and insidious. What the disease takes away from sight does not return.

The glaucoma is two wild: primary and secondary

Primary glaucoma, also called chronic open-angle glaucoma, is characteristic of the elderly and is the most common type of glaucoma. It is due to a difficult drain of the eye fluid through the eye drainage system. This difficulty drain increases eye pressure to values ​​that damage the optic nerve.

Depending on the type of glaucoma, it may occur almost asymptomatically as the cataract, without pain and other complaints, in addition to visual impairment, defects and narrowing of the field of vision, or may occur with seizures from a marked increase in intraocular pressure. Acupuncture is accompanied by pain in the eye, the temple and half the head, dimming, diminished vision, colorful circles, nausea, vomiting. If the disease is not treated, glaucoma damage to the optic nerve and visual field is irreversibly progressing to complete blindness.

Secondary glaucoma is when the disease is due to other ocular diseases such as inflammation, lens changes, trams, etc.

Diagnosis of glaucoma

There are many studies that need to be done to prove the diagnosis of glaucoma:

Tonometry – measurement of intraocular pressure
Ophthalmoscopy
Gonioscopy
Pachymetry
Perimeter
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)
Treatment

Early detection of glaucoma is a critical time for its treatment. Therefore, it is mandatory to measure intraocular pressure in people over 40 years of age who have attended an ophthalmology cabinet. The main goal of therapy is to reduce intraocular pressure and improve blood supply to the eye. The idea is to stop the progress of the process, stabilize the field of vision and, of course, preserve the patient’s vision.

This can be achieved by eye drops, laser treatment or surgery.

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