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Diabetic retinopathy


Diabetic retinopathy is a progressive disease that initially damages the capillaries of the optic floor and subsequently the retina. It is the leading cause of blindness in people under 65 years of age. In most cases, loss of vision can be prevented by eye tracking and proper treatment. Unfortunately, many patients do not pay enough attention to their illness for a number of reasons, and this leads to very severe eye changes that are most often irreversible.

Diabetic retinopathy is non-proliferative and proliferative.

Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy can occur in patients with different diabetes. This early form of diabetic retinopathy can also occur without patient complaints. It is characterized by the presence of spotted and spotted bleeding in the retina, micro-aneurysms (expansion of the blood vessels), “dry exudates” (lipid deposits in the retina as a consequence increased blood vessel permeability) and edema in the macula. Macular swelling (the central part of the retina) is a condition associated with the presence of micro-aneurysms and plasma leakage from the blood vessels in the retinal layers. This condition may occur with reduced vision and distortion of images. Various studies (ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, OCT, etc.) assess the state of the retina and the subsequent treatment. Treatment of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy is performed by laser therapy (laser therapy for diabetic retinopathy). When the edema in the center of the retina is very pronounced, intraocular injections with Anti-VEGF may also be used.

Proliferative diabetic retinopathy has high risk of loss of vision. This form of diabetic retinopathy is expressed in the development of neovascularizations (incomplete newborn blood vessels) on the optic nerve or retina, which tend to bleed and grow in the interior of the eye. This form is due to inadequate blood supply of the retina by producing on her side the so-called vasoproliferative factor (hormone stimulating neovascularization, VEGF). In addition to loss of vision from hemorrhage, heavier alterations such as retinal tract detachment and neovascular glaucoma may occur. Patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy should be treated as soon as possible with a laser (laser therapy for diabetic retinopathy) and / or virulence injections with Anti-VEGF.

Although laser therapy and anti-VEGF aid the disappearance of neovascularization, they can not repair damaged tissues. Laser therapy is impossible to administer in the presence of hemorrhage in the eye. In these cases a surgical procedure called vitrectomy is used to eliminate intraocular haemorrhage and proliferation, as well as to stick the retinal detachment.

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