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Retinal vein occlusion

Diseases

Retinal Vein occlusion is a blockage of the venous system of the eye, resulting in blockage of part of the retinal blood circulation. The venous occlusion may be on the central retinal vein or on its branch, respectively the central venous occlusion or clonal venous occlusion.

Blocking venous blood circulation leads to increased pressure in the capillaries, which in turn leads to leakage of plasma and blood in the layers of the retina. Age, high blood pressure, diabetes and smoking are risk factors for this disease, which is inherently identical to strokes and heart attacks.

Venous occlusion is divided into two types: Edema / lighter / and ischemic / heavier /. The form of the edema is with persistent edema in the macula and a lack of retinal ischemia, which is more favorable in the long term. The ischemic form of venous occlusion may lead to the growth of new vessels as a response to retinal malnutrition – neovascularisation. This neovascularization develops very quickly and can reach the vitreous and anterior sections of the eye. This in turn leads to very frequent bleeding in the vitreous, and neovascularization of the iris is the cause of the most severe complication of venous occlusions – secondary / neovascular / glaucoma. It occurs with very high intraocular pressure, severe pain, loss of vision, and sometimes loss of eye.

Fluorescein angiography is a very useful study that allows a distinction between the two types of this disease. It assesses the extent of swelling and ischemic zones and determines the need for laser therapy. The use of laser therapy and intraocular anti-VEGF are the only methods to prevent the development of complications from retinal venous occlusion.

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