The eye with normal refraction is called Emetropic. The image of the observed object, whether close or distant, is formed on the retina. Thanks to the accommodation, the lens constantly changes its shape and its refractive capability, depending on the distance of the object being observed, so as to maintain the clear image.
When the image of the observed object is not formed on the retina, vision is blurred, unclear. The condition is called ametropia or refraction anomaly. The term ametropia summarizes all refractive anomalies: hypermetropia, presbyopia, myopia and astigmatism. Correction of these anomalies is done through correction glasses, contact lenses or refractive surgery.
Hypermetropia is the most common refractive anomaly and occurs in about 50% of people. In this state, the focus of the optical system does not fall directly on the retina, but lies behind it. As a result, distant and nearby objects are blurred.
Young patients with this refractive anomaly see clearly from a spontaneous, unconscious strain of accommodation at a distant glance and close-by, respectively. This prolonged over-accomodation (reading, for example) results in eye fatigue and patient complaints:
With prolonged viewing, the images become vague, merging, blurring;
Feeling of pressure, weight, pain in the eyes and forehead;
As a complication of uncorrected hypermetropia, conjunctivitis, blepharitis, halatosis are often observed.
In the case of strong farsightedness at an early age, although vision may be good, correction is necessary in order to prevent the development of strabismus.
With age, however, accommodation is weakened and visual acuity is decreasing and the patient needs correction first and then later.
The causes of hypermetropia are:
• Poor refractive power of the optic eye media;
• “Small eye” – on a short front and rear axis of the eyeball. The inferiority is 3 degrees:
• Poor – up to 2 D (Diopter);
• On average – from 2 to 5 D;
• Strong – over 5 E, which is relatively rare.
Treatment of hypermetropia
The correction of farsightedness is done with collecting / + / glasses. In young hypermetropes, only apparent hypermetropia is corrected, i.e. (+) glass is given, making the eye look the best. In older patients, two pairs of glasses are needed – one for correction only of apparent hypermetropia that is constantly worn, and the others for correction of presbyopia and apparent hypermetropia at the same time, which are worn to work nearby.
How to protect yourself
Unfortunately, there is currently no effective prophylaxis of this condition, except for generous eye-catching activities – regular rest, avoiding persistent computer or reading, and so on.
What are the recommendations after making the difference?
After diagnosis and determination of the weight of hypermetropia, it is necessary to assess whether a correction is necessary with collection glasses or correction can be postponed. It is important to know that uncorrected hypermetropia in childhood often develops convergent companion squirrels due to the need for a sustained stress on accommodation. In glaucoma, glaucoma is becoming more common in the elderly. If hypermetropia is not corrected, conjunctivitis and blepharitis are more common.