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Age-ralated macular degeneration


What is AMD?

Age – related macular degeneration (AMD) is a growing problem in the United States

the modern world. It is the leading cause of vision loss – in developed countries it is ill

about 30% of people after the age of 50.

The AMD has no generally accepted definition. It is believed to represent pathological aging

the central part of the retina, called the macula. The latter is related to form vision,

seeing the details and colors. AMD damages the central vision – they receive

have difficulty reading, objects are seen deformed as they progress

the disease recognizing faces becomes impossible.

What is AMD due to?

The exact causes and mechanisms of disease development are the subject of many studies and

have not yet been fully elucidated. Proven risk factors for the development of the disease are:

Age. As the age progresses, the frequency and progression of AMD increases.
Race. AMD is more common in light-skinned women in developed countries.
Heredity. It occurs more often in people who have relapsed the disease. There are some genes that predispose AMD.
Smoking. This is the only preventable proven risk factor. Smokers develop the disease more often, and more often they cause irreversible loss of vision.
How does AMD develop and what forms is there?

As the age develops in the macula, there are pathological deposits called drupes.

It is assumed that they are a physiological manifestation of aging of the macula. Some people with

time these degenerative age changes lead to disfigurement of the macula with

followed by atrophy and, in some cases, neovascularisation.

Dry form. It is more common and is considered the beginning of the pathological process.
The accumulation of multiple drus in the macula leads to the death of retinal cells.

Atrophy develops, which causes the visual acuity to decrease.

The dry form progresses slowly and can be stagnated or wet


Moist form. A smaller percentage of AMDs develop this form. With her
under the retina pathological vessels are called choroid

neovascularization. They lift the improper retina that the patients have

noticed as revealing the straight lines. May cause swelling or

bleeding, where central vision sharply decreases. After a different period of

time the nevascularization goes into a scar and the damage to

vision is stationary. The wet form more often leads to irreversible loss of


How to diagnose AMD?

A common method of self-examination is Amsler’s network. When the patient

observe looping or when they are not visible in a particular area

talks about macular involvement. Self-review is recommended in a few months.

Visual acuity decreases in the final stages of the disease, which is why

routine eye examinations can not make an early diagnosis, but it can be

guiding. The gold standard for diagnosis is fluorescein angiography (known as “color photograph”). The best way to diagnose is OCT-ANGIOVUE (optical coherent tomography – angiography). This is a method that shows the layers of the retina as slices and at the same time visualizes the retinal vessels without contradiction and can clearly distinguish the forms of macular degeneration.

Prophylaxis of AMD

Due to the fact that the disease is progressive, difficult to treat and leads to gradual loss of vision, prevention is needed from the earliest stage and even before the disease is present:

– eating a diet rich in vitamins and minerals and low in cholesterol;

– Adoption of dietary supplements (medications) recommended by an ophthalmologist if necessary for at-risk groups;

– treatment of major diseases – arterial hypertension, diabetes, etc .;

– protection of eyes from harmful radiation – sun, computer and others with quality tools (glasses);

– Periodic check-ups at a specialist physician.

How is AMD treated?

There is no cure for the dry form in the true sense of the word. It is imperative

smoking cessation and protection with antioxidants (vitamins C and B, beta

carotene, zinc, copper, lutein, zeaxantin, etc.). In wet form today it is most commonly used

intraocular injection of anti-angiogenic drugs (Anti-VEGF preparations). In most patients, these medications can lead to the cessation of evolution

of the pathological process. Three-fold injection over 1 month is recommended and controlled by OCT-ANGIOVUE or fluorescein angiography. If necessary, anti-angiogenic medications may be re-administered and combined with other therapeutic methods. Modern treatment of MMSD requires an individual approach and patient collaboration.

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